Since the passing of Proposition 227 (1998) in California, which established English only instruction in schools for English language learners, many bilingual programs have ceased to exist. The traditional bilingual programs existing before Proposition 227 were specifically designed for English language learners only, primarily native Spanish speakers. Although some of these bilingual programs included a heritage or primary language maintenance component, the ultimate goal was to have students learn English. Therefore, as students progressed through the grades, Spanish instruction was replaced with English only instruction. Though this type of bilingual program is on the decline or no longer exists in most school districts, dual language immersion or two-way immersion schools are growing in California.
Dual language immersion programs, specifically two-way immersion programs, are designed for students, native and non-native speakers of English, to learn two languages; one language does not replace the other. There is a great demand for these programs and there are long wait lists at these schools; in fact, many eager parents complete a preliminary application of interest when their child is not of school age to ensure a greater possibility of getting in when they are. For many of these schools, admission is by lottery.
Most dual language immersion programs enroll native English and native Spanish speakers. Ideally, each class is made up of 50% native English speakers and 50% native Spanish speakers. There are also dual language immersion programs that focus on other languages such as Korean, Mandarin, Japanese or French, instead of Spanish. A great advantage of these programs is that the students come from varied backgrounds and socioeconomic status. Although most students live approximately 5-20 minutes away from the school, it is not uncommon to have students come from areas that are 30-60 minutes away.
The main goals for these programs are for students to achieve strong levels of academic proficiency in both languages and to value cultural diversity. Many programs exist at the elementary school level only, but there are some that continue the program into high school. One such program exists in the Saddleback Valley Unified School District. They have a K-12 dual language immersion program. Students enrolled in this program attend Gates Elementary School, Los Alisos Middle School and Laguna Hills High School. The Laguna Hills High School dual language program is affiliated with the International Spanish Academies Program from the Embassy of Spain.
Students enrolled in dual language immersion programs have the opportunity to earn a State Seal of Biliteracy Award. On October 8, 2011, Governor Brown approved bill AB815, State Seal of Biliteracy, authored by Assemblymember Julia Brownley. This bill established a uniform set of criteria for all California school districts recognizing students for their successful academic achievement in English and another world language(s). If the criteria is met, the State Seal of Biliteracy is recorded on the student’s high school diploma and/or transcripts. Previously, each school district used their own set of criteria for awarding the Seal of Biliteracy. More information and resources regarding this award can be found on the Californians Together website. Californians Together is a statewide coalition of advocates and other civil rights groups committed to securing equal access to underserved children in our schools.
For frequently asked questions about dual language immersion programs, please see these two links:
For an extensive list of dual language immersion schools in California, please see: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/el/ip/ap/directory.aspx
To gain a better understanding of what a dual language program can offer students, please see Edison Language Academy’s inspirational video clip regarding their model dual language program:
New Dual Language Immersion Schools in Orange County, CA:
Magnolia School District, a small district in Anaheim, now has a dual immersion (Spanish) program at Marshall Elementary School.
Orange County’s first Korean dual immersion program began in the fall of 2013. Although the school has gone through several name changes, they are now firmly established in Tustin and are the Orange County Language Academy, a Korean dual language program of National University Academy. It is a free public charter school that provides a 50/50 model of instruction. They have established an Orange County Language Academy Facebook page. For more information, email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Capistrano Unified School District added a fourth elementary dual language immersion program; the newest addition provides Mandarin as the language of choice. The program began in the fall of 2012-13 at Bergeson Elementary School in Laguna Niguel and now includes grades K-2. Additional information about the school can be found on Friends of MIP and the school district’s website under Mandarin Immersion Program.
Orange Unified School District added their first dual language immersion program in the fall of 2012. Their new Mandarin immersion program is at Fletcher Elementary School in Orange.
A new private immersion school in Costa Mesa, Renascence School International, opened its doors in the fall of 2011. This school focuses on the development of three languages: English, Spanish and Mandarin.