Simon Penny, Conference Director and Professor of Art at the University of California, Irvine”
Keynote Speaker: Anthony Chemero, Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Cincinnati.
Anthony Chemero is Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Cincinnati. His research is both philosophical and empirical; typically, it tries to be both at the same time. His research is focused on questions related to nonlinear dynamical modeling, ecological psychology, complex systems, phenomenology, and artificial life. He is the author of Radical Embodied Cognitive Science (2009, MIT Press) and, with Stephan Käufer, Phenomenology (2015, Polity Press). He is currently editing the second edition of The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences.
Keynote Speaker: David Kirsh, Professor of Cognitive Science at the University of California San Diego.
David Kirsh is professor and past chair of the Cognitive Science dept at UCSD where he runs the Interactive Cognition Lab. He has written extensively on situated cognition and especially on how the environment can be shaped to simplify and extend cognition, including how we intelligently use space, and how we use external representations and physical objects as interactive tools for though
Emanuele Quinz and Samuel Bianchini, BEHAVIORAL OBJECTS : A New Paradigm for Art and Design?
The notion of behavior and even the power to act (agency) is becoming increasingly central to contemporary art. But instead of situating behavior on the side of living, as is usually the case, how can we invert the perspective and consider this aspect in connection with the works, objects, dispositifs, and environments themselves? How to analyze, understand, theorize, test, and design artworks that include a behavioral dimension, that is, possess the capacity (especially the “physical” capacity) to act and react in relation to their environment and their audience? While more work is being done on this subject in engineering, it is mainly in the areas of robotics and artificial intelligence, primarily using a functionalist approach and with a focus on representational robots. Relatively little research, however, is occurring in the fields of contemporary art and design.
In the frame of the research project “Behaviors: Strategies and Aesthetics of Behaviors Between Art, Science, and Design” (2012-ongoing, in partnership with Université Paris 8, the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs, and the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris), we proposed the notion of “behavioral objects” : non-anthropomorphic, non-zoomorphic, and more broadly speaking, non-biomorphic roboticized objects that do not intrinsically possess an expressive capacity through their form, but express behaviors by their movement.
The Lecture will address this notion, and retrace a genealogy in the field of art and design – notably going back to the historical avant-gardes and to their intersection with scientific and technological research, from cybernetics to electronic engineering, robotics, from cognitive sciences to computer programming.
Frances Joseph, Sapient Textiles: Materiality, mediation and embodiment
The traditional role of textiles as a second skin, mediating between body and environment, is being reconsidered in light of technological developments and new theoretical perspectives. The notion of skin as a sensory interface or ‘fringe of the virtual,’ has been recognized in digital embodiment theory, New textile processes involve physical and digital dimensions, both in terms of the processes of making that constitute textiles as material artefacts, and through the development of fabric based electronics in the form of smart textiles that can sense, communicate, respond, and even harvest energy. These ‘second skins’ and the new frameworks and sensibilities produced through such technological infrastructures are the focus of this paper. Smart textiles are considered in terms of materiality, mediation and embodiment in relation to a series of projects investigating the development and performance of knitted e-textile structures.
The emerging field of e-textiles is an interdisciplinary domain that is underpinned by a radical repositioning of bodies, textiles and computing. These ‘wearable, washable, drape-able computers’ pose questions about dualities of material and immaterial; exterior and interior; body and mind; object and subject. The notion of ‘sapient materiality’ where consciousness and cognition are part of the specifics of materiality rather than defined in opposition to a material world, is discussed in relation to ongoing research into knitted textile transducers that translate variations in physical quantities into electronic signals. Relationships between the structure and behavior of smart knitted textiles are considered in terms of configuration and performance as embodied interaction.
Elisabeth Nesheim, Physical sketching, abstract movements and creative processes – the promise of updating the body schema with haptics – telepresentation
What is at stake when the sense of touch, postures and gestures of the hand, aided by haptics become key players in a creative process of designing tools, services or even artistic works? Although haptic technologies are becoming more common we still do most of our everyday computing through screens. Such ocularcentric interface design offers an unbalanced mediation of the multisensory way we experience the world. The sense of touch has long been noted as a reality checking device in what I touch is real. By downplaying the role of touch and motor-sensory perception data in interface design, we ignore a vital source of information of the world—which in turn has its impact on our thinking about the world. This paper develops Mark Hansen’s claim that new media technologies can broaden the what he labels the pre-personal domain—“the organism–environment coupling operated by our nonconscious, deep embodiment” (2006, 20), as it offers us the option of translating the unobservable (or rather the pre-consciously perceivable) into the visual realm, granting us access to new multi-sensory and synesthetic experiences. I do so by unpacking the two points present in Hansen’s claim: 1) the notion that the pre-personal domain is extendible, and 2) that new media technologies (digital, haptic and sensor technologies) are in a distinct position to do so. Hansen’s idea has its roots in Merleau-Ponty’s notion of the body schema. By identifying the processes governing the extending, revising and preserving of the body schema—unpacking MP’s concept of abstract movements and investigating embodied cognition researcher David Kirsch’s hypothesis on physical sketching—we are given a clue as of how the pre-personal domain is expanded. Finally, I discuss a particular haptic technology (the data glove) and connected artistic practices, to see how such technologies are in unique position to extend our body schema.
Aurélie Besson, Senses of movement and embodiment in interactive artworks
Interactivity in art has opened a whole new research field in which the visitor’s gestures have become central since they modify the artwork and the visitor at diverse degrees. These artworks require from the visitor to enter in relation, in motion, with them.
What happens during the interactive artwork experience, between the perceived artwork and the visitor’s body? And what does it imply at the level of the five senses and the body’s movements?
This presentation is based on a study that analyzes the experience of interactive artworks, conceived with or without computer technologies, that have the particularity to provoke the visitor’s gesture or movement. This research is based on the fact that we actually perceive with the whole body and numerous embodied sensory channels. As described by Alain Berthoz (1997), the gesture is both an initiator of an action and a mode of perception.
This presentation is based on an interdisciplinary study I am leading during my Phd research, at the crossroad of aesthetics and cognitive sciences questioning how these artworks destabilize or stimulate the senses of movement (proprioceptive, kinesthetic, vestibular senses, etc) and offer an embodied experience that enables a certain degree of conceptualization. I am leading an auto-ethnographic analysis based on researches made in the fields of interactive art and embodiment, art and perceptions, and embodied cognition.
Yelena Gluzman, Interdisciplinary Approaches to Interaction
In the past twenty years, neuroscientists found evidence for embodied and inter-subjective theories of human cognition, suggesting that higher-order cognitive events (e.g., learning and creativity) in the central nervous system are non-trivially contingent upon interactions with the body and social environment. This has led to a widespread effort to identify specific neural correlates of embodied social behavior in humans, and this work is often done using non-invasive brain imaging techniques, like electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Such work, as in the case of the Pineda lab, often focuses on populations with social dysfunction, like people diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and investigates whether behavioral deficits are linked to atypical neural function. One of the challenges in doing such work is the limit imposed by technologies like EEG and fMRI, which often require subjects to be immobilized and/or isolated. Tests of social behavior are therefore done based on interactions with video screens and highly constrained movement. Efforts to address this problem have focused on the development of imaging technologies to incorporate data from traditional brain imaging, body motion capture, and eye gaze tracking, allowing for participants to move and interact, while also affording researchers information about the bodily and visual actions of participants.
Though new technologies hold great promise for more ecologically valid ways of analyzing the coupling between neural, bodily, and social events, the experimental paradigms used in concert with such technologies remain largely unchanged from those used with more limited imaging technologies. In traditional experimental paradigms, researchers will choose a fixed sequence of “social” stimuli that participants observe, and measure brain activity during the perception of and response to these stimuli. This approach can yield a great deal of legitimate data about what brain systems are involved in particular tasks. However, since stimuli do not change in response to participants’ behavior, such studies cannot analyze a dynamic interaction in real time, in which participants collaborate to interpret and make sense of each other’s action.
Both theater and social science offer resources to explore this problem. In theater, it is widely acknowledged that the design of fictional situations can facilitate actual experiences and interactions; moreover, these theatrical experiences are available to performers as well as a variety of co-present participants. Therefore, using theatrical paradigms as experimental situations allows for both a repeated, experimental structure, while also allowing for an emergent and actual social interaction. Social science is also interested in how the social emerges from interaction. Sociologists and communication scholars have been able to ethnographically observe dynamic interactions and, using approaches from semiotics and ethnomethodology, could show the minute steps through which interacting pairs coordinate to achieve local instances of shared meaning, learning, and collaboration. Such research has been able to identify semiotic, multimodal resources that participants use to coordinate with one another. Of course, the studies done in this manner can only address interaction at the scale of behavior, and do not seek to relate these to biosemiotic events at the scale of neurons, muscles, etc.
This paper reports on an ongoing research project in which we attempt an interdisciplinary approach, combining methods from theater (performative enactments), with social science (multimodal semiotic analysis), with methods from cognitive neuroscience (brain imaging) to develop a novel paradigm for the analysis of social interaction. Such an approach can both examine neural correlates of social behavior, while also considering the social to be not fixed, but rather emerging through embodied interaction. Concretely, the project will look at two-person interactions in which either member spontaneously takes on the role of a fictional character in order to coordinate with the other. These interactions, situated within the context of an interactive performance installation, are instances of dynamic social interaction that are then analyzed in the lab. In the preliminary findings of the study, we report on embodied strategies used both by interacting pairs to coordinate with each other, and also by the researchers themselves as they attempted to code and analyze these interactions.
Joanna Ganczarek, Daniele Nardi, and Marta Olivetti Belardinelli, Am I here or there? Space and Action in Aesthetic Experience
When viewers approach a canvas that delivers a life-like, almost photographic rendering of a scene, the person’s perception of space and body might change considerably. Through a combination of perception and imagination they are transported from ‘here’ to ‘there’. They remain in the physical space surrounding an artwork but also engage in imaginary actions within the pictorial space. This situation exemplifies the account of multiple states of existence and the flexibility of cognition. It also highlights the connection between perception of space and actions that can be performed within it.
The aim of the paper is twofold: presenting experimental data on subjects’ experience of space and action when viewing Vermeer’s paintings (1) and framing the data within the wider theoretical context of embodied cognition paradigm (2).
Regarding the first objective, physiological measures (eye movements and body sway) will be described with particular attention to the indices that suggest that the imaginary actions and places have an effect on viewers’ bodies. With reference to the second objective, relevant aspects of embodiment theory will be discussed such as the concept of motor components of spatial cognition and affordances.
Daniel Weiskopf, Embodied Encounters: The Role of the Body in Art Criticism
In “The Body/Body Problem”, Arthur Danto argues that while the medical and biological sciences deliver new kinds of theoretical and practical knowledge about our bodies, art cannot do so. Rather, we understand artworks through engaging our “folk” embodied knowledge. I survey three ways that the body enters into the interpretation of artworks and argue that while embodied knowledge can be an essential tool and a corrective to certain theories of artistic representation, it also has sharp limits.
First, bodies are represented objects, and are therefore sites of interest, attention, and empathetic engagement. Mimetic theories such as Kendall Walton’s give a central role to imagination and pretense. Embodied cognition also emphasizes simulation in understanding bodily and mental states. But the limits of mimetic theories show up when encountering art that deals with detached or disassembled bodies, and thus aims to subvert these reactions.
Second, artworks, like bodies, exist in space, with surfaces and skins, interiors and cavities, skeletons and supports. Attending to these helps show the limits of philosophical theories of depiction, which treat images as if they were disembodied or purely formal structures. Our bodies are vehicles for spectatorship, and viewing artworks requires specific standpoints, postures, and contortions, which can produce their own emotional and discursive responses. Theories of interpretation that rely on a “disembodied” relationship to artworks, treating them as abstractions, overlook crucial facts about critical appreciation.
Third, bodies are a reservoir of analogies and metaphors. James Elkins argues that the body often serves as an abstract formal grid that can be projected as a scheme for interpreting the non-bodily world. But not all images and objects fit this formal grid, and where they don’t, embodied spectatorship breaks down. It is an open question how much remains comprehensible in artworks that stretch or break the limits of bodily metaphor.
Jonathan Chou, Phenomenology in Practice: Implications for the Art and Craft of Fiction
What can phenomenology teach us about the art and craft of fiction? Why and how does one write? Drawing primarily from the preface of Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s seminal work, “The Phenomenology of Perception,” this paper explores a phenomenological theory of the art and craft of writing. Beginning from the dissolution of the Cartesian mind-body split, I argue that the imaginative act of writing can no longer be thought of as a translation or reification of a mental image, but must instead be conceived of as the means by which one creates the world and establishes the truth of one’s consciousness, or one’s being-in-the-world. Yet, as writing is not equivalent to perception, the art of writing must be distinguished from its craft. If the act of perception is always already begun, our understanding of our relation to the world is not; the work of description is an infinite task and cannot be completed so long as we are in the world. This is the responsibility of philosophy, Merleau-Ponty contends, to invite us to take notice of our relation to the world. I argue in similar fashion that a successfully crafted work of writing inserts a space between its reader and the world and by doing so awakens the reader to his or her own thoughts. Writing thus stands to suspend the movement of our being-in-the-world, to loosen “the intentional threads that connect us to the world in order to make them appear.” As the attempt to provide a direct description of embodied experience, to “[rediscover] that actual presence of myself to myself,” phenomenology may bridge the divide between philosophy and art and above all give writers new ways to imagine the purpose and execution of their work.
Claudia Villegas-Silva, Embodiment and Post- Human Aesthetic in Contemporary Latin American Theater and Performance
This paper explores three performances by Latin American directors and artists: Juan Carlos Zagal, director of Cinema teatro (“Historia de Amor,” 2013); Raúl Miranda (“Domus aurea” [Golden House], 2010); and Trinidad Piriz (“Helen Brown,” 2013). The three performances considered here constitute examples of the diversity and search for renewal of theatrical codes using new media in latinamerican theatre. Many practitioners of theatre today are in search of new aesthetic practices capitalizing on the many advances in technology. In order to demonstrate the way in which technologies are staged, I will discuss three plays which show innovative and compelling uses of technology that compel the audience to speculate on what it means to be human and critically question the post-human position.The three artists construct alternate spaces by mediating technology and gender as well as the idea of real time, space, and presence, consequently creating a post-human aesthetic. The use of new media lead s to the construction of new physical structures to house these types of performances because of the transformation of spatial and temporal perception caused by different technologies. These new spaces urge us to (re)consider notions of identity, consciousness and the organic body.
Susanna Melkonian-Altshuler, Knowing-how and artifact concepts
This talk is about the explanatory role of knowing-how for understanding the structure of some abstract artifact concepts. A non-intellectualist view of knowing-how will be presented according to which our phylogenetic capability to create new worldly items derives from trial and error experiences. This evolutionary notion of knowing-how will then be used to characterize artifact concepts.
In metaphysics, it is generally held that making objects involves productive intentions (e.g. Hilpinen 2011). The problem with this view, however, is that it is incapable of accounting for the nature of productive intentions. Where do productive intentions come from and how did we develop our very first ideas of artifact production? I am going to argue that artifact production knowledge can be derived from sensory-motor experiences. When our ancestors first manipulated new items they did not have any productive intentions, but rather developed them in terms of experimenting with nature and perceiving effective results of their actions.
An advantage of this evolutionary view of artifact production is that it connects to grounded views of cognition. On a modified view of grounded cognition, I will argue that the conceptual structure of some present-day’s abstract artifact concepts such as PIECE OF MUSIC or PIECE OF ART can be effectively explained if it is taken into account that “visual recordings” of first observed result objects played a major role in developing abstract artifact concepts.
Workshop: Research Methodology as Embodied: The Phenomenological Interview, Simon Høffding and Kristian Martiny
In this workshop we will put you to work!
First, we present a research framework called a “phenomenological interview” based on our phenomenological research on expert musicians and people with brain damage. After this, you will work in small groups discussing how to use this research practice to improve your own research.
Read Høffding & Martiny (2015) “Framing a Phenomenological Interview” Phen Cog Sci. The document is uploaded CLICK HERE.
Register for the workshop CLICK HERE.
Erik Rynell, Acting as participatory sense making
In their theory about “Participatory sense-making” Hanne De Jaeger and Ezequiel Di Paolo extend the enactive concept of sense-making into the social domain. With this theory they intend to explain how “meaning is generated and transformed in the interplay between the unfolding interaction process and the individuals engaged in it”. Their theory builds on the fact that processes of social interaction are complex, multi-layered, self-organizing, and can shape individual intentions (De Jaegher, Di Paolo 2007, Di Paolo, De Jaegher 2012, Cuffari, Di Paolo, de Jaegher 2014). I will argue that this description can also hold true for scenic action, in the actors’ collective way to make sense of the text during their preparatory work, as well as in scenic performance. I also intend to point out that, implicitly, Stanislavski presents an idea of similar kind in his late “method of physical actions”, and in his related idea about “on the floor” analysis, where he recommends the actors to make sense of the text in bodily interplay. A comprehensive account for this method can be found in a work Action Analysis by Stanislavski’s assistant and follower as a teacher at the Moscow Academy (GITIS) Maria Knebel (Knebel 1959, 2006). I will also refer to Katie Mitchell to illustrate how the theory of participatory sense-making can be applied to work in contemporary experimenting theatre (Mitchell 2008). Finally, I will discuss the idea of participatory sense-making in relation to contemporary performance art (Gob Squad Reader 2010). In my speech, I intend to demonstrate that De Jaegher’s and DiPaolo’s theory about participatory sense-making can contribute to a less individualistic approach to the actor’s work, and also make the paradigm of enactivity useful for bridging the gap between representative and non-representative acting forms.
Gretchen Schiller, The mémoire vivante project
The “Mémoire vivante” living memory research project advances the hypothesis that the subjective tacit kinaesthetic knowledges drawn from the dancer’s experience are not valued as part of our kinaesthetic culture. This is largely due to social and methodological constraints. To address this gap, this paper proposes to elaborate upon the ways in which dancer Germana Civera remembers through her body and develops very adaptive embodied cognitive skills through language, metaphor and daily practice. The research will be presented as a performative portrait (prô traho) pulling and “bringing forth” the dancer’s tacit knowledges as kineaesthetic markers of thirty years of dancing. It focusing on the dancer’s ghost gestures (Behnke) and micromovements apparent through the dancer’s constant shifting of weight from one foot to another.The intent is to extract the idiosyncratic specificities of choreographic experience which altered her physical understanding of the body and contributed to her gestural repertoire.
This videodance project (using motion capture, oral history and videodance) is currently in development and funded by the Maison des Sciences de l’Homme with ÉCLAIR, la Maison de la création, Université Grenoble Alpes.
Lukas Ligeti, Polymeters, Body, and Mind: One Musician’s Creative Experiments with (Dis)embodied Rhythm
Soon after beginning my composition studies, I attended a lecture by the ethnomusicologist Gerhard Kubik about the court music of Buganda (an ancient kingdom now in Uganda). In this tradition, extremely fast, interlocking melodies are performed by multiple players sharing the same tempo but having individual notions of the beat, a way of feeling and hearing rhythm unique to East/Central African music. Listening, it quickly becomes impossible to perceive individually each musician’s part, and we start reprocessing the aural information according to other criteria, such as frequency bands. Such cognitive phenomena were exploited with great mastery by the (probably mostly 18th- and 19th century) composers of this tradition, creating a highly complex composition technique.
This discovery embarked me on a journey of experimentation both as an improvising drummer and as a composer for new-music ensembles. I developed a “choreographic” drumming technique, based on repetitive motion patterns, that allowed me to play rhythmic cycles thousands of beats long, and I attempted to dissociate sound from movement while playing, leading to new ways of hearing and understanding my own playing. I experimented with new modes of interplay between ensemble musicians, developing techniques of relative beat perception. I incorporated melodic and rhythmic illusions into my music, allowing one to experience the music from multiple vantage points, not unlike looking at a sculpture from different sides. And I brought my ideas “home” to my experimental collaborations with traditional musicians across Africa. Computer technology has played a key role in many aspects of this work.
In this paper, I will describe some of my techniques and experiences and show how they derive from concepts from various African traditions. I will also point to possibilities for future development and for collaborations between musicians, ethnomusicologists, and cognitive scientists.
Sally Jane Norman, Performing Arts Incorporated: Poetics of Physical Labor
..theatre is not that scenic parade where one develops virtually and symbolically – a myth: theatre is rather this crucible of fire and real meat where by an anatomical trampling of bone, limbs and syllables bodies are renewed. Artaud
Performing arts offer unique modes of embodiment in the ways they solicit corporeal skills and elicit audience re-cognition. Actors and mimes, dancers and musicians, magicians, circus artists and puppeteers mobilise diverse embodied literacies to creatively shape live action. Genres like live coding, with its staging of computational algorithms, human gestural and inscriptive practices, and machine-rendered outputs, pursue this playful exploration of more-or-less flesh-bound processes vying for the immediacy of non- or beyond-representational presence. Spatial and temporal scales implied by a given performance, and the materials and energies it employs and deploys, are fashioned to reinforce a sense of ‘corporeal exemplarity’ (Barthes). In contrast to habitual task-driven or communications-driven encodings and decodings, the morphokinetic qualities of artistic human action demand expressive and interpretative labor, honing our ability to entertain otherwise inconceivable kinds of liveness.
This, I argue, is the role of performing arts writ large: to make corporeally manifest their poetic construals of liveness that stretch our imaginations, thence our adaptive skills to steadily evolving conditions of existence. Insofar as these manifestations convoke idiosyncratic engagements with materiality – the acrobat contradicts our sense of gravity, the puppeteer contravenes our understandings of inert objects – their appeal to cognition is productively and uniquely ambivalent. Setting longstanding and emerging performance practices in the context of debate on corporeal ‘intelligencings’ (Thrift), I will try to show how they constitute a vital, irreplaceable ‘body of knowledge’.
Antonin Artaud, Theatre and Science, 1948
Roland Barthes, Critical Essays, 1964
Nigel Thrift, Non-Representational Theory: Space, Politics, Affect, 2007
Guy Zimmerman, Ghosting the Radical in the New Gilded Age: Immersive Theatre and the Experimental Politics of Embodiment
Since the 1960s, site-specific experimentation has been a mainstay of LA’s art and theatre avant-garde. In the 1960s and 70s the city’s Arts District provided the Live Art movement with an abundance of urban sites ripe for radical situationist re-encodings. Here, the innovations of Alan Kaprow’s happenings were fleshed out by radical feminist and other activist artists. Given this history it is surprising that immersive theatre only arrived in Los Angeles in 2014, when Wilderness Stage Company’s The Day Shall Declare It (TDSDI) premiered on 7th Street. Immersive theatre, in which the viewer travels at will through a complex staged environment for a singular theatrical experience (Punchdrunk’s Sleep No More, or Third Rail’s Then She Fell) is of a piece with the new emphasis in critical theory on relationality and embodiment. Some critics have connected immersive theatre to narcissistic spectatorship and the entrepreneurial subject of neoliberalism. Others have taken a more benign view, celebrating immersive theatre as a natural extension of Malina and Beck’s experiments with The Living Theatre in the 1960s. Noting how this divergence replicates the discourse around the politics of postmodernism, I bring neo-materialist perspectives from Hayles, Braidotti and Lazzarato to bear on the mystery of immersive theatres delayed arrival in LA. Examining a central feature of immersive theater—how it replaces the generic audience experience with the singular relationality of a unique body—I ask whether it fashions the foundational activist critiques of the past into a new political subjective modality, or instead betrays those same radical antecedents. I argue that while TDSDI reproduces some of the central contradictions of neoliberal capitalism, it also points toward a new subjunctive (“what if?”) mode of politics that replaces neoliberal collapse with a situated, embodied expansiveness that helps to explain its delayed arrival in Los Angeles.
Shaun Gallagher, The concept of joint body schema in educational practices in the performing arts
During certain types of expert performance, the performer’s actions are sometimes carried along in a way that seems to involve a kind of passivity. Høffding (2015) in an analysis of musical performance has pointed to four factors that are involved in this phenomenon: body schema, emotion, the music itself, and, in the case of playing music together, the other players. I’ll take a closer look at the connection between body schema and the intersubjective dynamics of co-performance. I’ll clarify the concept of body schema and it’s relation to practice, and I’ll look at recent research on the notion of a “joint body schema” (Soliman & Glenberg 2014) and discuss some implications for training in music and dance.
Melissa Bremmer, What the body knows about teaching music
This panel will be about embodied learning/teaching through/in the performing arts. From an embodied approach, the body is not considered as an instrument but as a primary signifier in the cultural transmission of musical and dancing skills – from the perspective of the pupil and of the teacher.
Three ideas in relation to embodiment will be discussed. First, the idea that the teaching/learning process in the performing arts is a multi-modal form of teaching/learning. Teaching/learning dance and music involves the entire body and all the senses: it is a living process that requires a bodily attentiveness and dynamical attunement of both teacher and pupil. Secondly, teaching/learning in dance and music is considered a participatory sense-making activity and is therefore highly relational. It is an activity that can be described as an embodied engagement process in which music and dance experiences are exchanged, coordinated and shaped between pupil and teacher and between pupils. Rhythm, pulse and timing are co-constituted and co-regulated in the interaction. The third idea is that art itself is aesthetic and expressive-affective. In learning and teaching music and dance meaning is created together: the aesthetic and expressive-affective meet, and from this meeting meaning arises. In other words, what is being learned settles in the body. Learning/teaching in music and dance is a relational, emergent practice in which the social, the physical and the cultural coincide.
The panel starts with an introduction by Shaun Gallagher about the notion of “joint body schema” as related to the performing arts. The other presenters will look into the implications of this concept for the teaching/learning in dance and music, connecting it to multi-modality, participatory sense-making and art as aesthetic and expressive-affective experience. The subsequent lecture performances enable the translation of the theoretical concepts into hands-on, lived experiences of embodiment in arts education.
Jaco Van den Dool, Learning with the body: investigating the link between musical interaction and the acquisition of musical knowledge and skills
Despite empirical evidence claiming that emotional and bodily processes underlie our cognitive decision making and social functioning (Yang & Damasio 2007), the pervasive body-mind dualism, the Cartesian split (Crossley 1995; Howson & Inglis 2001; Merleau-Ponty 1962), has been deeply rooted in education (Armour 2006; Bowman 2004; Chodakowski & Egan 2008; Powell 2007; Evans & Davies 1996; Reid 1996). This study aims at challenging the body-mind dualism with empirical research, claiming that conscious bodily participation significantly enhances the acquisition of musical knowledge and skills.
This paper examines the acquisition of popular music by young Nepali musicians for whom local traditional music occupies a preeminent place in their music learning process. The way they apply their bodily learning strategies in local traditional music to popular music sheds light on the way musical knowledge and skills might be acquired in general. Therefore, the central question in this study is how bodily learning processes in the form of interaction, gestures and entrainment result in the acquisition of musical knowledge and skills in popular music. The outcomes are based on data collected in Kathmandu, Nepal, from 20 band rehearsals
Derived from a qualitative video analysis and a binary logistic regression, two patterns of learning emerged, indicating that musical knowledge and skills arise out of bodily interaction between musicians. The first pattern, in which they mainly observe their peers or teachers, comprises of human action observation (Calvo-Merino et al. 2005), imagining the observed movements with motor imagery (Cox 2011) and connecting this to previously acquired musical skills. The second pattern demonstrates the transition from human action observation to conscious participation with the body. Consciously aligning the body with the dominant pulse seems conducive to the learning process. Understanding these patterns contributes to embodied music education and caters to body-mind learning strategies of students.
Eeva Anttila, The potential of dance as embodied learning
In this presentation I will discuss the notion of embodied learning and argue that dance can be considered a special type of embodied learning. I will also argue that dance may have yet undiscovered educational potential beyond learning dance. Research in physical education (e.g, Singh et al. 2012) suggests that increased physical activity during academic classes seems to be connected to better learning outcomes. Dance is most often a multifarious physical activity that involves multimodal processes, social interaction, various modes of reflection, creative processes, and performative elements. The combination of music and movement in dancing is yet another factor that in light of brain research seems to warrant more attention. In all, dance may connect non-symbolic, multimodal sensations with symbolic, cultural meanings in an embodied, performative activity where multiple meanings can be shared, negotiated and interpreted. The performance elements and cultural aspects of dance open wide possibilities for learning that is grounded in embodiment but reaches towards complex cultural meanings. During this presentation I will outline my current understanding on dance as embodied learning, developed through several years of research and practical work in dance education (e.g., Anttila 2007; 2013; 2015). My research connects theoretical views and empirical findings on embodiment, embodied cognition, social cognition and socio-material approaches with somatic studies, dance studies and performative studies. In my view, embodied learning implies that the body should be understood as the site and medium for all learning, and that embodied activity – both the actual movement and bodily experiences of the learner – is fundamental in learning. Understanding the significance of bodily activity coupled with reflective and relational processes is a key in developing a comprehensive view on learning, and may have wide pedagogical implications.
Carolien Hermans, Participatory sense-making in dance improvisation
Most theories on subjectivity look to social cognition from a representationalist point of view. Models such as theory of mind, theory theory or simulation theory all state that the mental state of other people cannot be directly observed and therefore our mind-reading abilities have to rely on common sense or folk-psychological theory. In contrast, the enactive account looks at the problem of intersubjectivity from an interactive, embodied, non-representational perspective. Enaction stands for the manner in which a subject of perception creatively matches its actions to the requirements of the situation. It refers to a pathway in which several related ideas come together and are unified: autonomy, sense-making, embodiment, emergence and experience. De Jaegher and Di Paolo (2007) draw further on these five basic ideas of the enactive approach. They introduce the concept of participatory sense-making. In this presentation I will argue that group dance improvisation is a special form of participatory sense-making. The five interrelated ideas of enactive cognition will be used to show in detail how group dance improvisation is in essence a joint sense-making process. In group dance improvisation multiple embodied meanings (such as affects and aesthetic intentions) are created and shared on the spot, in the moment. This embodied joint sense-making process offers vital learning opportunities for both professional and amateur dancers.
Luc Nijs, Digital painting with music and movement: multimodal learning in instrumental music education
Starting from a specific view on the musician-instrument relationship (Nijs, Lesaffre & Leman, 2013), I will discuss the importance of the embodied music cognition paradigm for instrumental music teaching and learning, focusing on the different levels of embodiment (Metzinger, 2015). Using the Music Paint Machine, an interactive music educational technology that allows a musician to make a digital painting by moving in various ways while playing a musical instrument (Nijs & Leman, 2014) as example, I will elaborate on how the integrated use of different modalities (music, movement and image) can address these different levels of embodiment (morphology, body schema, body image) and as such contribute to establishing an optimal relationship between musician and instrument. In our view such an optimal relationship is a conditio sine qua non for the expressive interaction with music and for the involved musical signification process.
Workshop: A path from Irvine: Theatrical and anthropological explorations of self-knowledge, Caroline Gatt (in person) and Gey Pin Ang (telepresenting)
This workshop emerges from a collaboration between a theatre practitioner, Ang and an anthropologist, Gatt. This praxis session will intertwine group tasks, brief spoken presentations, a question and answer session with Ang Gey Pin and open discussion. The collaboration between Gatt and Ang has developed along multiple paths: through practical work in the studio, academic discussions and more open imaginative exchanges. This workshop will similarly explore the diverse paths of self-knowledge that emerge from different ways of life and skilled work on the self, and will open up questions about non-relativistic understandings of self-knowledge. We suggest that the notion of embodied cognition can be fruitfully challenged if a broader understanding of selfhood is taken into account.
In her current project Gatt has taken an anthropological approach in parallel to the theatrical investigation with Ang. For this session Gatt will consider Grotowski’s interest in what he called ‘objective drama’, a phase in his work developed in Irvine. This provides a challenging starting point for an anthropological approach to self-knowledge. Inspired by Ingold’s ecological phenomenology and Viveiros de Castro’s manifesto for ontological self-determination, Gatt’s anthropological stance is to take seriously possibly non-commensurable forms of self and self-knowledge.
In this workshop, Gatt will invite participants to explore different culturally and historically situated forms of self-awareness through theatre-inspired tasks. Here knowing by means of theatre, rather than providing an analysis of self-knowledge in theatre is key to understanding different possibilities of the self. Examples of such different forms of self include ‘Western’ notions of self-knowledge as ‘reflexivity’, permeable and partible selves in South India and moments of distended selfhood in experimental theatre.
A pedagogue and performer currently completing a Practice-as-Research PhD at the University of Kent, Ang Gey Pin explores her work as a reflexive investigation of a creative path. Having spent a period of 9 weeks at Grotowski’s Objective Drama Program, University of California, Irvine, in 1992, Ang will trace her path since Irvine.
Ang will briefly describe how her formative training has had significant influences on her and has opened up a path for her work Sourcing Within since 2006. Ang’s current research emphasizes the notion of ‘care of the self’ and the discoveries of the performer’s potentiality via one’s physical and vocal embodiment in a performative work. Her work concerns and relates shared human experience within cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary contexts.
We suggest that work on the self is ontologically generative. Selves and self-knowledge are veritably transformed through joint work in processes of ontogenetic development and growth. Taking this transformational potential seriously, and being aware of its limitations, allows us to transcend relativism without ignoring alterity.